CSS3 – Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a language that is used to illustrate the look, style, and format of a document written in any markup language. In simple words, it is used to style and organize the layout of Web pages. CSS3 is the latest version of an earlier CSS version, CSS2.
A significant change in CSS3 in comparison to CSS2 is the introduction of modules. The benefit of this functionality is that it allows the specification to be finalized and accept faster, as segments are finalized and accepted in portions. Also, this allows the browser to support segments of the specification.
There is much to learn about CSS animations. Another new and awesome CSS feature is the
that allows you to do simple mathematical calculations in CSS. You can use it anywhere, but a particular size is required. This feature also gives you the facility where you can mix different units, like percentages and pixels. its not wrong to say that this great new feature of CSS has made a lot of layout hacks that you might have used in the past, now totally outdated and unwanted. The best news? It works in IE9
and up, prefix-free.
We now assign IDs to elements to do a lot more than just for the purpose of styling them. CSS 2.1 and CSS 3 has introduced a number of powerful selectors that can make your layouts and stylesheets more systematic, cleaner, and precise.
Generated content is a great tool in the hands of developers, facilitated by the
::after pseudo-elements. This feature helps you to achieve the same layouts using less
HTML. This is especially beneficial in cases where you need extra box shadows or other visual elements that may require extra spans or divs.
As a result, you get a more minimal and semantically correct HTML.
Generated content is supported everywhere, including IE9 and up.
Gradients give web designers the power to create smooth transitions between colors without using images. CSS gradients also look great on retina displays, because they are generated on the fly. They can be linear or radial and can be set to repeat. They have been around for some time now and with a few minor syntax alterations, they are now available nearly everywhere, prefix-free!
Technology has come a long way. Can you imagine there was a time when we had only a handful of “web-safe” fonts and nothing else? It is hard to believe, as today we have services like Google Fonts and Typekit, which allow you to use beautiful fonts by simply including a stylesheet in your page. There are even icon fonts like font awesome,
which contain pretty vector icons, instead of letters or numbers. This
was all made possible by the code>@font-face rule, which lets you
define the name, characteristics and source files for fonts, which you
can later reference in your
font-family declarations. With some workarounds, web fonts work on browsers as old as IE6.
One big cause for headaches for CSS beginners is the box model. The standardization needs to have the CSS width and height of an element affected by its padding and borders. This little (mis)feature breaks layouts and wreaks havoc, but finally, there is a way to restore our sanity by using the rule. You can set it to, which makes elements behave exactly the way you expect.
border-image the property allows you to display custom-designed borders around elements. The borders are contained in a single image (sprite), with each region of that image corresponding to a
different part of the border.
Media queries are inevitable if you are serious about web design. They have been around for a while, but are worth recognition because they have transformed the way we build websites. Earlier a regular website would be wide enough to fit the smallest monitor resolution used at the time, and a separate mobile website was used. These days, we build sites that are responsive and which adapt to the type of device, orientation and resolution.
Media queries are surprisingly easy to use – all you need to do is to enclose CSS styles in a block guarded by a code>@media rule. Each code>@media block is activated when one or more conditions are met. The media query can contain checks for device resolution and orientation, color depth, pixel density, and more.
With the help of multiple backgrounds, designers can achieve very interesting effects. They can stack different images as backgrounds of the same element. Each layer can be moved and animated independently. All background-related CSS rules can now take a comma-delimited list of properties, each for the specific background image.
There is good support for this rule, although it still requires prefixes. Where things break down is with the support of some of the other column-related rules and differences between browsers in handling corner cases.
There is nothing more flashy and eye catching than an impressive 3D CSS demo. Although its utility outside of demos or portfolio sites is minimal, 3D CSS offers some powerful features to designers and developers that can win the hearts of tne users if done artisticaly.